Checklist: Men's Health Screenings You Should be Doing by Age

A group of men smiling and wearing blue; men's health check ups

You don’t want to go to the doctor. We know. To help you make the most of the times you do see your provider, Mark Newton, MD, UnityPoint Health, breaks down the top men’s health concerns and the suggested health screenings, plus, four ways to benefit your overall health.

Ages 20-45

  • Testicular cancer. Perform monthly self-exam checks for testicular masses, as some forms of testicular cancer are more common in younger men. Finding anything unusual requires a visit to your primary care provider or urologist.
  • Vasectomy. Depending on social or family situation, it can be a good time to control reproduction through vasectomy.
  • Urologic trouble. Most men in this age range shouldn’t have urologic symptoms. If something like a blockage in the urinary tract occurs, it could mean something specific to your anatomy.
  • Colon cancer. It’s recommended to start colon cancer screenings at the very end of this age range. Screenings should begin at 45 and may include a colonoscopy or a stool-based test. Talk to your primary care doctor about which is the best option for you.

Ages 46-60

“Men in this age group begin to have issues with enlarged prostates, erectile dysfunction, and if they are smokers, they enter the age range where cancer in the lining of the urinary tract can present, often with blood in the urine,” Dr. Newton says.

  • Prostate cancer. Generally, men between ages 40-55 should begin receiving prostate cancer screenings through a PSA test. Family history is important, and men with a positive history should be screened earlier. Talk about the risks/benefits of PSA screening with your primary care provider.
  • Enlarged prostate. Symptoms of prostate enlargement include decreased urinary stream, increased urgency/frequency of urination, a stream that starts/stops during the course of urinating, difficulty starting the stream and getting up at night to urinate. Symptoms can be managed with medications.
  • Erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is common and can impact up to 50 percent of men over the age of 40. There are a range of treatments, from oral medications, to penile injections, even implantable prosthetic devices.
  • Blood in urine. This is never normal and always a red flag. Testicular self-exams are also still recommended.
  • Colon Cancer. Continue annual colon cancer screening. This could include either a colonoscopy or a stool-based test. Talk to your primary care doctor about the options.

Ages 60+

  • Prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is most common in men of this age and a discussion about PSA screening should continue with your primary care provider.
  • Colon Cancer. It’s recommended to continue colon cancer screenings through the age of 75. After that, talk to your doctor about how frequent checks should be administered.
  • Urinary symptoms or incontinence. Men may have worsening urinary symptoms or even incontinence from bladder/prostate issues, which can usually be managed with medications but sometimes require surgical intervention. Seeing your provider early is important because ignoring symptoms can be harmful.
  • Blood in the urine. See your provider, as it is never normal.

Remember, these are general recommendations by age. If you have a history of disease in your family, your doctor might suggest different screenings at different times. You and your doctor can make the best decision at an annual physical.

Men's Health Screening Checklist

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How Men Can Improve Their Health

While each man is unique, Dr. Newton lists the four areas men should focus on to benefit their overall health.

  1. Diet. Diet can directly contribute to disease processes including diabetes, heart disease and even formation of kidney stones.
  2. Smoking. Most people know smoking is a number one cause of lung cancer, but they don't always know it is also the number one cause of kidney and bladder cancers. It also contributes to heart disease and erectile dysfunction. No matter when you quit, there are health benefits. It’s never too late.
  3. Reproductive health. Screening allows men to take some control and be proactive. Monthly self-exams beginning at puberty should continue throughout adult life to evaluate for testicular cancer. PSA screening is appropriate for many men, and there should be a joint discussion with their primary care provider about it around age 50.
  4. Managing stress, adequate sleep and exercise. Mental health is an important piece of a man's overall health. Don’t ignore things like stress, anxiety or depression. Exercise is a great stress reliever that can have a positive impact on multiple health issues (diabetes, obesity, etc.). 

Dr. Newton’s number one piece of health advice for men? If something seems abnormal, have it checked out. A great way to make sure your concerns are addressed is to schedule an annual physical. There, you can also make sure you're up-to-date on needed vaccines, including the flu shot and the COVID-19 vaccine.

“Ignoring symptoms and delaying treatment can result in problems that can be life-threatening, or at the very least, can be more difficult to manage at a later stage,” Dr. Newton says.

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